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ORTHOMOSAIC MAPS

(GEOGRAPHICALLY CORRECTED AERIAL)



An orthomosaic (or orthophotograph) is very similar to an aerial photograph.  The most notable differences include adjustments for earth curvature, topographic relief, camera lens distortion, and camera tilt.

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“A digital orthophoto quadrangle (DOQ) is aerial photography or satellite imagery that has been corrected so that its pixels are aligned with longitude and latitude lines, and have a narrowly defined region of coverage. This is a widely used format introduced by United States Geological Survey (USGS). The correction technique is called image rectification and is a large part of photogrammetry.”


Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs, especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points. It may also be used to recover the motion pathways of designated reference points on any moving object, on its components, and in the immediately adjacent environment. Photogrammetric analysis may be applied to one photograph, or may use high-speed photography and remote sensing to detect, measure and record complex 2-D and 3-D motion fields (see also sonar, radar, lidar, etc.). Photogrammetry feeds measurements from remote sensing and the results of imagery analysis into computational models in an attempt to successively estimate, with increasing accuracy, the actual, 3-D relative motions within the researched field.


Image rectification is a transformation process used to project two-or-more images onto a common image plane. This process has several degrees of freedom and there are many strategies for transforming images to the common plane.


Aerial photography is the taking of photographs of the ground from an elevated/direct-down position. Usually the camera is not supported by a ground-based structure. Platforms for aerial photography include fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or "drones"), balloons, blimps and dirigibles, rockets, pigeons, kites, parachutes, stand-alone telescoping and vehicle-mounted poles. Mounted cameras may be triggered remotely or automatically; hand-held photographs may be taken by a photographer.


An orthophoto, orthophotograph or orthoimage is an aerial photograph or image geometrically corrected ("orthorectified") such that the scale is uniform: the photo has the same lack of distortion as a map. Unlike an uncorrected aerial photograph, an orthophotograph can be used to measure true distances, because it is an accurate representation of the Earth's surface, having been adjusted for topographic relief,[1] lens distortion, and camera tilt.


A digital elevation model (DEM) is a digital model or 3D representation of a terrain's surface — commonly for a planet (including Earth), moon, or asteroid — created from terrain elevation data.


Photomapping involves the process of drawing a map from a photographic base. "In all likelihood, computer map making, including analogue processing, will have replaced manual map making for well over 90 per cent of all maps".[1]



References

Digital orthophoto quadrangle. (2016, December 13). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:00, March 3, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Digital_orthophoto_quadrangle&oldid=754520731


Photogrammetry. (2016, December 26). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:13, March 3, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Photogrammetry&oldid=756801599


Image rectification. (2017, January 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:18, March 3, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Image_rectification&oldid=758255801


Aerial photography. (2017, February 24). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:21, March 3, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aerial_photography&oldid=767129341


Orthophoto. (2017, February 9). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:27, March 3, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Orthophoto&oldid=764579735


Digital elevation model. (2017, February 27). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:29, March 3, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Digital_elevation_model&oldid=767732911


Photomapping. (2016, August 7). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:33, March 3, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Photomapping&oldid=733403688